SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- First we must pay attention that neither the Twelver Shia consider other Islamic sects as kafirs, nor do the majority of the Sunnis accuse the Twelver Shia of kufr, and if it is ever said so, it is by small extremist groups such as the Wahabis who hold no significant status amongst Muslims, not even the Sunnis.
Twelver Shias, as a result of their strong ability of argumentation and great scholars, have backed and confirmed their beliefs through sources that those opposing the Shia see as authentic and have also challenged the beliefs of others, thus becoming subject to the animosity and anger of extremists. At the same time, such a high ability of scholarly dialogue and level of confidence is devoid of in other Shia sects such as the Isma’iliyyah, not making them threats to extremists. Consequently, hostilities are much less here and efforts are made to prevent their assimilation into the majority of the Shia (which are Twelvers) through appropriate attitudes towards them.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) --
What is for sure is that according to what one of the verses of the Quran clearly states, Allah (swt) created Adam (pbuh) with his own ‘hands’. This verse and its content are accepted by all Shia scholars and interpreters, leaving no room for any doubt.
On the one hand, after doing a general search in our hadiths, a hadith identical to what you mentioned in your question wasn’t found, but in the future if we stumble upon such a hadith, we will discuss its authenticity and chain of narrators. Also, if you have the Arabic of the hadith, please send it to us so that we can give a more precise answer to your inquiry.
Anyhow, considering other hadiths and Quranic verses, we must say: keeping in mind the following premises, the creation of Prophet Adam’s (pbuh) earthly body through the light of the imams (as), of course with another explanation other than what might be common amongst people, is something possible and will not clash with the verse we mentioned either.
We would like to draw your attention to these premises:
1- According to the Shia and many of the Sunnis, Allah (swt) bears no material body allowing us to say He is made of different parts and consider Him similar to other beings and creatures. That’s why we can't take some Quranic verses that attribute physical parts such as a face, hand, foot, eye, ear, etc. to Him for their literal meaning and are actually figures of speech that have an inner meaning and must be interpreted as Allah’s (swt) knowledge, power, existence, etc. This is why for instance when it is said that Adam (pbuh) was created by the hand of Allah (swt), what is meant is that he was created by the power of Allah (swt).
2- In many cases, Allah (swt) attributes what others apparently have done themselves and with their own hands to Himself, for example, He says that He is the one who provides the people with ships, although we all know that it is man who builds the ship, not Allah (swt)!
Of course, since man’s power is in continuation and a part of Allah’s (swt), explaining such a verse and understanding its true meaning isn't difficult, and in a sense, man and everything he has made are in reality, a creation of Allah's (swt).
3- According to some ahadith, the creation of the light of the imams (as) has taken place before the creation of Adam (pbuh). The prophet of Islam (pbuh) says: “When Prophet Adam (pbuh) was still amongst water and clay [hadn’t been created yet], I was a prophet.” Similar to this hadith is another one that speaks of the chronological precedence of Imam Ali’s (as) imamate in relation to the creation of Adam (pbuh). There are countless other hadiths that disclose the same meaning with different phrasings.
4- Imam Ali (as) was without a doubt one of the signs of Allah's (swt) might and power and because of this, he is called “The Hand of Allah” (ید الله). He himself in a hadith says: “أَنَا عَیْنُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا یَدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا جَنْبُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا بَابُ اللَّهِ” (I am the eye of Allah, the hand of Allah, the side of Allah, and the path to Allah).
Keeping all of the above in mind, if anyone believes that Prophet Adam (pbuh) was created by the hands of Imam Ali (as), it will mean that Allah (swt) created him through one of the manifestations of His power, meaning the light of Imam Ali (as) that was created from before, not that the physical body of Imam Ali (as) independently did such a thing.
On this basis, although the scale of belief in the matter you mentioned isn't as you put it, nevertheless, if anyone believes in it, it won't be in conflict with the accepted fundamentals of Islam, thus not causing those who might say so to be kafirs and mushriks.
At the same time, it can't be said that believing in Imam Ali (as) creating Prophet Adam (pbuh) with his own hands is something that can't be denied in the Shia school of thought, on the contrary, it can be questioned and researched about.
In the end, we would be grateful if you could send us the Arabic text of this hadith.
 Sad:75 “قالَ یا إِبْلیسُ ما مَنَعَکَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِما خَلَقْتُ بِیَدَیَّ أَسْتَکْبَرْتَ أَمْ کُنْتَ مِنَ الْعالین”.
 Qisas:88 “کُلُّ شَیْءٍ هالِکٌ إِلاَّ وَجْهَه”.
 Ma’idah:64 بَلْ یَداهُ مَبْسُوطَتان ; Fath:10 “یَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَیْدیهِم”
 Qalam:42 “یَوْمَ یُکْشَفُ عَنْ ساق”.
 Taha:39 “وَ لِتُصْنَعَ عَلى عَیْنی”
 Ale-Imran:181 “لَقَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّذین”; Mujadalah:1.
 Ibrahim:32 “وَ سَخَّرَ لَکُمُ الْفُلْکَ”.
 Saffat:96 “وَ اللَّهُ خَلَقَکُمْ وَ ما تَعْمَلُون”
 Ahsa’i, Ibn Abi Jumhur, Awalil-La’ali, vol. 4, pg.121, hadith 200.
 Ibid, pg. 124, hadith 208 “کنت وصیا و آدم بین الماء و الطین”.
 Kuleini, Muhammad ibn Yaqub, Kafi, vol. 1, pg. 145, hadith 8.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) – “Preliminary investigations, physical evidence which has been collected and statements from the accused in this case have shown a direct link between members of this cell and Iran’s intelligence apparatus,” said a security spokesman for the Interior Ministry quoted by the official news agency.
He said Iranian intelligence had paid the suspects “in exchange for information and documents about important sites”. The investigation is ongoing, he added.
Riyadh announced a week ago it had arrested 16 Saudis, an Iranian and a Lebanese on suspicion of spying.
Iran denied on Sunday that it was linked to spying in Saudi Arabia.
The allegation marks an escalation in friction between the two major oil producers, which face each other across the Gulf.
Saudi Arabia and Iran have backed opposing sides in armed conflicts and political struggles across the Middle East, particularly in Syria and in Bahrain.
Riyadh has also accused an unnamed foreign power, which officials have privately named as Iran, of stirring unrest among its own Shi’ite minority, something Tehran has denied.
Saudi Arabia also points to an alleged Iranian plot, announced by United States police in 2011, to assassinate the kingdom’s ambassador in Washington. Iran denied that too.
Iran said last week a drunk Saudi diplomat had killed an Iranian national in a car accident. Riyadh has denied the diplomat was drunk.
Members of Saudi Arabia’s Shiite Muslim minority said the arrested men were from their community and expressed doubt over the veracity of the spying charges.
The 16 Saudis arrested included a paediatric doctor, a university professor and a banker as well as two well-known clerics. Relatives and friends of some of those arrested said they did not believe the men had strong political views.
In a statement issued by 37 Saudi Shi’ite leaders last week, including religious leader Ayatollah Hassan al-Saffar, they accused the government of using the spying charges to escalate sectarian tension to detract public attention from other issues.
Most Saudis follow the rigid Wahhabi school of Sunni Islam that sees Shi’ism as heretical.-www.shafaqna.com/English
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) --
The word Imamah means to lead and an Imam is anything that is followed, whether it is a person and individual or something else, and whether it leads to the right path or the wrong path. But in Islamic terms, it denotes the leading of people by Allah that covers all aspects of human life, even those which are related to the hereafter, and is carried out by a complete person as successor of the prophet.
From Shia theologians’ point of view "Imamah" like "Prophethood" is considered one of the "Osule Din" (Fundamental beliefs of Islam). Shiah scholars also believe that such a position is only granted by Allah to whom he pleases. An Imam has all the responsibilities of a prophet except for prophethood itself.
Being appointed by Allah, Ismah (infallibility) and being the highest are the three requirements of being an Imam. There are several logical reasons as well as a great amount of ahadith that prove the concept of Imamah and prove that all Muslims should obey the Imams.
There are verses in the Quran that can be used as proof for Imamah and the necessity of obeying him. Verse 142 of surah Baqarah, 67 and 55 of surah Al Maedah, which is also known as the verse of Wilayah, etc. are among the verses that are historically linked to Imamah by there "Sha’ne Nozuls" (occasions of revelation/ the historical that entailed the revelation of a verse).
Other than these examples there are verses that directly relate to the Imamah of Imam Ali, like verse 9 of surah Tobah, which is also known as the "Verse of Sadeqin": " یا ایها الذین امنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین ", or verse 23 of surah Shura, also known as the "Verse of Mawaddah": " قل لا اسئلکم علیه اجراً الا المودة فی القربی ". The ahadith that explain the Sha’ne Nozul of these verses are narrated in both Sunni and Shiah books.
The word Imamah means to lead and an Imam is whatever that is followed, be it a person and individual or something else, and whether it leads to the right path or the wrong path. But in Islamic terms it denotes the leading of people by Allah that covers all aspects of human life, even those which are related to the hereafter, and is carried out by a complete person as successor of the prophet.
From Shia theologians’ point of view "Imamah" like "Prophethood" is considered one of the "Osule Din" (Fundamental beliefs of Islam). Shiah scholars also believe that such a position is only granted by Allah to whom he pleases. An Imam has all the responsibilities of a prophet except for prophethood (and in other words, the receiving of revelation).
Being chosen by Allah, Ismah (infallibility) and being the highest are the three requirements of being an Imam. There are several logical reasons as well as a great amount of ahadith that prove the concept of Imamah and prove that all Muslims should obey the Imams.
Imamah in the Quran:
Several issues fall under this category that we will address separately:
1- The meaning of Imamah in the Quran: The meaning of Imamah is identical to that of Arabic dictionaries, meaning to lead, and consequently an Imam is one who leads and others adhere to him.
2- The verses that relate to Imamah: There are 12 verses in the Quran in which words that relate to Imamah like "Imam" or "A’immah" (plural form of Imam) are used. This word has been used for different instances therein. In eight of these verses the word Imam refers to a human being, in two it refers to a book, in one verse it refers to the "Loh Mahfuz" while in another it refers to the straight path.
Quranic proof that the imam can only be appointed by Allah (swt)
"وَ إِذِ ابْتَلىَ إِبْرَاهِمَ رَبُّهُ بِکلَِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنىِّ جَاعِلُکَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَالَ وَ مِن ذُرِّیَّتىِ قَالَ لَا یَنَالُ عَهْدِى الظَّالِمِینَ"  And when his Lord tested Abraham with certain words, and he fulfilled them, He said," I am making you the Imam of mankind." Said he," And from among my descendants (will there be any Imams)?" He said," My pledge does not extend to the unjust" (Only those of your offspring that are just and pious will deserve such a rank).
" وَ جَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئمَّةً یَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَ أَوْحَیْنَا إِلَیْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَیرَْاتِ وَ إِقَامَ الصَّلَوةِ وَ إِیتَاءَ الزَّکَوةِ وَ کاَنُواْ لَنَا عَابِدِینَ "  We made them imams, guiding by our command, and we revealed to them the performance of good deeds, the maintenance of prayers, and the giving of zakat, and they used to worship us".
 " وَ جَعَلْنَا مِنهْمْ أَئمَّةً یهَْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبرَواْ وَ کَانُواْ بَِایَاتِنَا یُوقِنُونَ"And amongst them we appointed imams to guide [the people] by our command, when they had been patient and had conviction in our signs".
These verses prove that the Imam should be chosen by Allah; because in all of these verses, granting this status has only been attributed to Him, and moreover, the verse of "Ebtela'" (verse 124 of surah Baqarah) has described Imamah as a holy and divine covenant, therefore he will grant it to whom he pleases. These verses also indicate that the Imam should be infallible, and that he should be the highest and most righteous of his people. Clearly no one but Allah can know about the features and virtues all possess and whom possesses more. Therefore the Imam must be chosen by Allah. The philosophy of appointing Imams is to guide and lead people to salvation.
Quranic proof that the people are in need of an Imam
Regarding the necessity of the existence of an Imam in society one must say that the same way prophets are essential for us to reach our perfection, the existence of an Imam is also necessary at all times to continue the mission the prophet has started, and that is to protect religion from potential threats as well as guiding people to the right path.
"انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد ” (You are only a warner, and there is a guide for every people), "کونوا مع الصادقین", and the verse of Iblagh are among the verses that indicate the people’s serious need of an Imam. We will point out some of the ahadith and verses that interpret these verses:
1- " انما انت منذر و لکل قوم هاد "  ; You are only a warner, and there is a guide for every people.
2- " اطیعوا الله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم "  (O you who have faith! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those vested with authority among you). All Shia commentators agree that the term " اولی الامر " refers to the Imams.
3- " یا ایها الرسول بلغ ما انزل الیک من ربک... "  (O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord). According to authentic ahadith narrated by Sunni scholars this verse was revealed on the occasion of Qadir Khom and on that very day the prophet, through his appointing Imam Ali (as) as successor, successfully ended his mission. Though the verse is directly related to Imam Ali, but it also indirectly states the necessity of the existence of an Imam at all times.
Verses that prove Imams are chosen only by Allah
There are many Quranic verses that prove the Imamah of Ali and his progeny. However these verses can only be used as proof when backed by the several ahadith narrated from the Prophet which explain the "Sha’n Nozul" of these verses. These ahadith are accepted by both Sunni and Shiah scholars, here we will mention some of these verses:
1- The verse of Tabliq: "O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do not, you will not have communicated His message, and Allah shall protect you from the people. Indeed Allah does not guide the faithless lot." 
Allah strictly commands his prophet to convey his message and according to the ahadith after receiving this revelation the prophet assigned Ali as his successor in a place known as "Ghadir Khom", on that occasion the prophet said: "Whoever I was his mowla, Ali will be his mowla". 
2- The verse of Wilayah: "Your guardian is only Allah, his Apostle, and the faithful who maintain the prayer and give the zakat while performing ruku’." 
A vast majority of Quranic commentators and hadith narrators believe that the verse refers to Ali (as).
In his book "Al-Durrul Manthur", Suyuti, one of the greatest Sunni scholars, narrates a hadith from Ibn Abbas that "Ali was doing ruku’ in prayer when a needy person approached him. Ali (as) gave him his ring in charity, the prophet asked the poor man: Who gave you this ring? The poor man replied: The man that is bowing down in prayer. (while pointing at Ali )(as)", after this the verse was revealed. 
In this regard Fakhr Razi narrates a hadith from Abdullah Ibn Salam in his commentary on the Quran . Abdollah says that when the verse was revealed to the Prophet of Allah I told the Prophet that I had seen with my own eyes Ali (as) give the poor man his ring and therefore we accept his wilayah! He also narrates a similar hadith from Abuzar that points out the Sha’n Nozul of this verse. 
Tabari, another Sunni scholar, mentions several ahadith about this verse and it's Sha’n Nuzul, and the majority of them state that the verse refers to Ali (as). 
The Great Allamah Amini has mentioned ahadtih from about twenty authentic Sunni books in his valuable book "Al Ghadir" along with their addresses and sources that confirm this verse referring to Imam Ali (as). 
In this verse the Wilayah of Allah, the prophet and Imam Ali are mentioned side by side, indicating that there is no difference between them.
3- The verse of "Ulul Amr": " O you who have faith! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those vested with authority among you." 
On one hand, Muslim scholars  believe that this verse refers to Ali (as).
For example, Hakem Hasakani Hanafi Neishaboori, the famous Sunni commentator mentions 5 ahadith when explaining the verse in which the title of "اولی الامر" has been identified with Ali (as). 
Abuhayyan Andolosi mentions different opinions about who the "اولی الامر" are, and mentions that Maqatel, Meymoon and Kalbi (Quranic commentators) believe the verse is referring to the imams from the Prophet's household (as). 
Abu Bakr Ibn Mo'men Shirazy, a Sunni scholar, points out in his treatise of "E'tiqad" that Ibn Abbas stated that the verse referred to Ali (as). 
On the other hand, the verse mentions that Allah (swt), the prophet and the Ulul Amr must be obeyed, all of this with the same wording and without repeating the word “اطیعوا” in the verse, all of which indicate that the imams must infallible as well, or else it wouldn’t be right to order the people to be in total submission and obedience to them the same way that everyone must obey the prophet and Allah (swt) without question, and according to the ahadith, the only ones to be imam are the 12 imams of the Shia.
All of what was mentioned above was only to give a glimpse of the many ahadith narrated by Sunni scholars that prove the Shiah's claim.
There are also many verses that relate to the Imamah of Imam Ali. When searching Sunni books we find significant points pertaining to these verses, for more information you can refer to authentic books on this subject.
Other than these examples there are verses that directly relate to the Imamah of Imam Ali like verse 9 of surah Tobah, which is also known as the "Verse of Sadighin":  " یا ایها الذین امنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین ", or verse 23 of surah Shora, and is also known as the "Verse of Mawaddah":  " قل لا اسئلکم علیه اجراً الا المودة فی القربی ". The ahadith that explain the Sha’n Nuzul of these verses are narrated in Sunni and Shiah books.
Moreover other verses in the Quran explain the great virtues and features of Ali (as) and how he surpassed all of the prophet’s companions in terms of reaching a higher status in the eyes of Allah. On the other hand common sense says to choose the better person over the one who is simply good, therefore we can conclude that Ali (as) deserved to be accepted as the prophet’s successor more than any one else.
Last but not least is that the status of Imamah is very important in Islam and is considered the last level of one's journey to reach spiritual perfection.
Some times Imamah and prophethood are combined in one person, like in Prophet Abraham or the Prophet of Islam who were both Imams and Prophets of their Ummah, and in other times only one of the two can be found, like the Ahlul-Bayt who were imams. 
 For further information, see: Question 997 (website: 1065) Proving Imam Ali's Imamate.
 " یا ایها الرسول بلغ ما انزل الیک من ربک... " Maidah:67, for further information, see: The Sunnis and the verse of Tabligh.
 Makarem Shirazi, Payame Qurani, vol. 9; Emamat dar Quran, pg. 182 and on.
 « انما ولیکم الله و رسوله و الذین امنوا الذین یقیمون الصلاة... » Maidah:55.
 Because according to authentic ahadith the one who gave his ring to the poor man was Ali (as).
 Al-Durrul Manthur, vol. 2, pg. 293.
 Asbabul-Nuzul, pg. 148.
 Tafsir of Fakhr Razi, vol. 12, pg. 26.
 Tafsir of Fakhr Razi, vol. 12, pg. 26.
 Tafsir Tabari, vol. 6, pg. 186.
 Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, pp. 52-53.
 " " یا ایها الذین امنوا اطیعوا الله و اطیعوا الرسول و اولی الامر منکم..
 There are tens of ahadtih mentioned in Tafsir Borhan which have been narrated in Sunni hadith records. These ahadith say that the verse refers to Ali (pb) and the household of the prophet, some ahadith go further and even name each of the twelve Imams as the individuals the verse refers to.Tafsir Borhan, vol. 1, pp. 381-387.
 Shawahidul-Tanzil, vol. 1, pp. 148-151.
 Bahrul-Muhit, vol. 3, pg. 278.
 Ihqaqul-Haqq, vol. 3, pg. 425.
 " یا ایها الذین امنوا اتقوا الله و کونوا مع الصادقین " Tawbah:119. Ahadith tell us that what is meant by the “sadeqin” are Imam Ali (as) and the prophet’s progeny. (Yanabi’ul-Mawaddah, pg.115 andShawahidul-Tanzil, vol. 1, pg. 262).
 Shura:33. For further information, see: The Ahlul-Bayt and the verse of Mawaddah.
 Adopted from: The Rational Arguments for Imamate, Question 614 (website: 671).
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- The superiority of the Shia religion over other religions is because of its being the "true" religion. There is only one true religion in all epochs. The true religion of God, the Exalted, is one in all times and eras; any religion other than the One True Religion is either false or abrogated or defunct.
The multiplicity of divine religions that have so far been revealed upon the humanity is longitudinal not latitudinal which means that the new religion is abrogative of and supplementary to the former one. Thus, with the coming of the new religion, the previous religion becomes defunct and is no longer considered valid. It would be necessary on all people to follow and have faith in the new religion as it replaces the old one. That is why, the holy scripts and religious texts use the term "Kafir" (infidel) to describe those who do not have faith in the new religion.
Islam is the last and the most complete of the revealed religions. God shall not accept any religion other than Islam. "ان الدین عندالله الاسلام" (Verily, the only religion acceptable to Allah is Islam.)"و من یبتغ غیر الاسلام دینا فلن یقبل منه" (And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him.).
Unfortunately, Muslims like the people and adherents of the previous religions are divided into different religions. Surely, all of them cannot be true at the same time. The holy Prophet of Islam said:
"ان امّتی ستفرق بعدی علی ثلاث و سبعین فرقة، فرقة منها ناجیة، و اثنتان و سبعون فی النار"
My Ummah will be divided into seventy-three sects, one of which will be in Paradise and seventy-two will be in the Fire.”
The holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) also said:
"ایها الناس انی ترکت فیکم ما ان اخذتم به لن تضلوا، کتاب الله و عترتی اهل بیتی"
"O People, I leave you two weighty things, if you stick to both you will never go astray after me: the Book of Allah and my progeny – the Ahlalbayt."
Abuzar Ghaffari, one of the trusted and honorable companions of the holy Prophet (pbuh) narrates:
"سمعت النبی (ص) انه قال: الا ان مثل اهل بیتی فیکم مثل سفینة نوح فی قومه، من رکبها نجی و من تخلف عنها غرق"
"The similitude of my Ahlalbayt amongst you is the same as that of Noah's Ark amongst his tribe. Whoever boards it will be saved and he who avoided it will drown."
The pillars and principles of the Shia religion are belief in divine unity (tawhid), divine justice (adl), prophecy (nubuwwah), Imamat and resurrection (ma'ad). Shia believes in the leadership of the twelve infallible Imams (a.s.) as the successors of the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) the first of them being Ali (a.s.) and the last one Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance).
In the traditions narrated from the Holy Prophet of Islam the number and names of the twelve Infallible Imams (a.s.) have been mentioned.
One day Abdullah bin Mas’ud was sitting in a gathering of people when a nomad Arab came over and asked: “Which one of you is Abdullah bin Mas’ud?”
Abdullah answered: “I am.”
Arab nomad: “Did your Prophet inform you about the number of his successor?”
Abdullah bin Mas’ud: “Yes, he did, they are twelve caliphs, (like) the number of the Chiefs of Bani Israel.”
Our arguments for the righteousness of the Shia religion are the Quran and Sunnah. Almighty Allah commanded us to obey God, the Messenger and Ulul Amr (those vested with authority) who, according to the Holy Prophet’s saying, are the Shia Imams. There are many a number of Quranic verses referring to leadership and wilayat (successorship) of our Imams. Some of them are the following:
"وانذر عشیرتک الاقربین" — " یَاأَیُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَیْکَ مِنْ رَبِّکَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ "— " الیوم اکملت لکم دینکم و اتممت علیکم نعمتی و رضیت لکم الاسلام دینا" —" انما یرید الله لیذهب عنکم الرجس اهل البیت و یطهرکم تطهیرا"
It has been mentioned in history books and in the narrations that the Prophet (pbuh) always called the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), his trustee and successor. Tabrasi narrates in his history book that when the verse "وانذر عشیرتک الاقربین" (and warn your closer relatives) was revealed, the Prophet (pbuh) addressed his relatives as such: Almighty God has commanded me to invite you to Him.Whoever helps me in this matter will be my brother, my trustee (wasi) and my successor after me.
Then the Commander of the faithful, Ali (a.s.) stood up before him and said:
“O Apostle of God, I will help you.”
There and then the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Verily, this (Ali) is my brother, my trustee, my helper, my successor after me among you. Follow him and be obedient to him. Some of the Prophet’s relatives laughed at this and declared to Abu Talib mockingly that he must bow down to his own son, as Ali was now his Emir.
In the last year of his life and as he was returning from his last pilgrimage, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) formally nominated Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) as the Muslims’ leader and ruler. He ordered all the pilgrims in a gathering at Ghadir Khum to vow allegiance to Ali as the Commander of the Faithful. This famous saying “of whomsoever I am a mawla (master and ruler), this Ali would be his master” is the Holy Prophet (pbuh)’s saying on this day. This is a well-known and mutawatir (mass-transmitted) tradition.
This is a brief explanation of the evidences of the superiority and righteousness of Shi’ism over other religions on the basis of Quranic verses and narrations. Definitely, we can also deal with this issue by drawing a comparison between the teachings of the Shia religion and those of non-Shia religions through which we could prove Shia’s superiority over other religions but we would rather leave this discussion for some other time.
When it comes to Wahabism, it would be enough to suffice with Sayed Mustafa Razvi’s writing in the book titled “Pakistan: Political and Religious Information” in which the writer says that Wahabism considers the followers of all other Muslim sects, Shia and Sunni, as pagans, infidels and idolaters. They declare seeking the intercession of the Prophet and Infallible Imams, visiting their graves, respecting and revering them as a form of innovation and idolatry. Thus, they forbid such acts on the ground that they are polytheistic acts. They do not permit greeting, respecting and revering the Prophet (pbuh) anywhere other than in the prayer and they believe that commemoration and reverence of the Prophet (pbuh) ended on the day he passed away from this world. They consider any kind of structures, monuments and tombs on the graves of the Imams and religious saints as bid’ah (innovation) and they believe that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was a human being who died and who no longer has the power to do anything because he has no information about us nor does he know anything about what is going on in this world. Therefore, it is forbidden to visit his grave. 
We let your common sense to judge as to whether these doctrines can be consistent with the Quran or human nature. Is this the love of the Ahlul Bayt which has been regarded as the wage of prophethood? Did the Quran not tell that the martyrs are alive and sustained by their Lord? And is the Prophet’s rank lower than that of the martyrs?!
Should you want to discuss the subject further, do not hesitate to email us. May Allah grant you success.
 - Aal-e Imran: 19
 - Aal-e Imran:85
 - Al-Ebanah al-Kubra, Ibn-e Vol. 1, p.3; Khesal, p.585
 - Kanzul Ummal, Vol.1, p.44, Babul E'tesam bil-Kitab Wassunnah.
 - Al-Mustadrak 'Ala al-Sahehain, Vol.3, p.151
 - Khesal, p.467
 - Tarikh Tabari, vol.2, p. 320, Egypt Publication: Kamil Ibn-e Athir, Vol.2, P.41, Beirut Publication
 - Sayed Mustafa Razavi, Political and Religious on Pakistan, p.63-64
 - قُلْ لا أَسْئَلُکُمْ عَلَیْهِ أَجْراً إِلاَّ الْمَوَدَّةَ فِی الْقُرْبى (I do not ask you any wage (in return for my prophethood) except tolove my near kin.
 - Aal-e Imran: 169
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) – In an exclusive interview with Shafaqna, Dr Mohammad Hossain Rajabi Davani, a researcher of Islamic history said, if certain divisive behaviours are avoided, commemorating martyrdom of Lady Fatima Zahra (AS) can be a unity point amongst Shia and Sunni Muslims. Dr Davani who was speaking on the occasion of the anniversary of martyrdom of Hazrat Zahra (AS) described the daughter of the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH) as a supreme example for individuals, social life, spirituality and a complete human being. He added that Lady Fatima (AS) is a role model for all mankind but as she was a woman, it is a priority for all women to take example of her.
This Islamic scholar explained that Lady Fatima (AS) was a shining example of a wife and mother whom others can learn from. She felt responsible for guiding the society and was the first woman to support the Prophet’s son in law, the leader of the pious and her husband Ali (AS). When those men who broke their allegiance to Imam Ali (AS), she actively entered the scene to defend him and the foundation of Islam. Despite all her social responsibilities, she was at the highest levels of obedience to the Almighty. Dr Davani said that considering her short life, Lady Fatima (AS) was an active teacher of her knowledge and wisdom which was obtained from her father, to others around her.
At a time when Imam Ali (AS) was under severe pressure from certain people, despite illness, Lady Fatima (AS) in a sermon invited people to understand their responsibilities towards their faith and encouraged them to break their silence and defend the Prophet’s ways. This Muslim historian described how commemorating the martyrdom of Lady Fatima (AS) can be an opportunity for Shia and Sunni Muslims to unite. He thinks both Islamic denominations should respect all members of the Prophet’s household (Ahlul Bait) in proper manners. Dr Davani believes the best way to commemorate the members of the Prophet’s household is the model left behind by the infallibles themselves. They used to invite poets to recite in the ceremonies as they listened whilst shedding tears for the sufferings of the Ahlul Bait. In his final remarks he asked for all the behaviour that offends Shia/Sunni Muslims to be avoided.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- The Holy Quran is the basis of the Shi'ite thought and the source of all the Shiite teachings. It considers the apparent and outward meanings of the verses, the sayings, conducts, silence and assertions of the Messenger of God (pbuh) and those of the Infallible Imams as authoritative proofs.
Additionally, the Quran has set forth the validity of intellectual arguments and endorsed intellectual intuition and unveiling.
Such a thought can be summed up and outlined as under:
- Belief in the oneness of God, the Almighty, and that He is qualified with all the attributes of perfection and exalted from all the attributes of defects;
- Belief in rational good and rational evil and that man's sound reason perceives that God does not commit an evil act;
- Belief in the infallibility of the divine prophets and finality of the Prophet of Islam;
- Belief in the fact that the Holy Prophet's successor is appointed by God through the Prophet (pbuh) or a former infallible Imam and that the number of the successors of the Prophet (pbuh) is twelve beginning with Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) and ending with Imam Mahdi who is alive and awaiting God's command.
- Belief in the life after death and that man is held responsible and rewarded for his deeds.
If we are to give a detailed answer to the foregoing question, we may have to write several volumes of books but for the sake of brevity we suffice to mentioning a few points:
1. The Shi'ite's only Source for Acquiring Knowledge
The single source upon which the divinely revealed religion of Islam depends and upon which it is based, inasmuch as it is based on a revelation of celestial origin, is none other than the Holy Quran. It is the Quran which is the definitive testament of the universal and ever-living prophethood of the Prophet and it is the content of the Quran that bears the substance of the Islamic call. Of course the fact that the Quran is alone the source of Islamic religious thought does not eliminate other sources and origins of correct thinking. As shall be explained later on, the Quran itself provides clarifications on other sources.
2. Ways Shown by the Quran for Religious Thought
There are three methods of religious thought in Islam. The Holy Quran in its teachings points to three paths for Muslims to follow in order to comprehend the purposes of religion and the Islamic sciences:
A) The External and Formal Aspect of Religion
It can be seen that the Holy Quran in its formal aspect addresses all people without providing any demonstration or proof. Rather, depending on the unique sovereignty of God, it commands people to accept the principles of faith such as divine unity, prophethood, eschatology; it gives them practical injunctions such as the daily prayers, fasting, etc.; and at the same time it prohibits them from committing certain other actions. Yet if the Quran had not provided authority for these commands it would never have expected man to accept and obey them. It must, therefore, be said that such simple utterances of the Quran are a path toward the understanding of ultimate religious ends and the comprehension of the Islamic sciences.
Indeed, the term "the external aspects of the religion" does not refer exclusively to the Quranic verses; rather it also includes sayings, conducts and assertions (silence) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and considers them to be authoritative as indicated by the evident meaning of the Quranic verses. The Quran says:
"لقد کان لکم فی رسول الله اسوة حسنة"
[Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him.]
Also, it has been proved through definite and profusely reported narrations from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) that his family's sayings, conducts and silence are on a par with his own sayings, conducts and silence.
In Shi'ism hadiths transmitted through the companions are dealt with according to this principle: if they deal with the words and actions of the Prophet and do not contradict the hadiths of the Household of the Prophet, they are acceptable. If they contain only the views or opinions of the companions themselves and not those of the Prophet, they are not authoritative as sources for religious injunctions. In this respect the ruling of the companions is like the ruling of any other Muslim. In the same way, the companions themselves dealt with other companions in questions of Islamic law as they would with any Muslim, not as someone special.
B) Intellectual Reasoning
In addition to guidance in the external aspect of religion, we see that the Holy Quran in many verses guides man toward intellectual understanding. It invites man to meditate, contemplate and deliberate upon the signs of God in the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many of its words and utterances the Quran attests to the validity of intellectual proof and rational demonstration, that is, it does not claim that man should first accept the validity of the Islamic sciences and then through intellectual proofs justify these sciences. Rather, with complete confidence in the truth of its own position it proclaims that man should use his intellect to discover the truth of the Islamic sciences, and only then accept this truth. It does not tell people to have faith first and then adduce arguments in accordance with it.
Intellectual proofs, which aid man in finding solutions for these problems through his God-given nature, are of two kinds: demonstration (burhan) and dialectic (jadal). Demonstration is a proof whose premises are true (accord with reality) even if they be not observable or evident. In other words, it is a proposition which man comprehends and confirms by necessity through his God-given intelligence, as for example when he knows that "the number three is less than four." This type of thought is called rational thought; and in case it concerns universal problems of existence, such as the origin and end of the world and of man, it becomes known as philosophical thought.
Dialectic is a proof all or some of whose premises are based on observable and certain data, as for example the case of believers in a religion for whom the common practice is to prove their religious views within that religion by appealing to its certain and evident principles. The Holy Quran has employed both these methods and there are many verses in the Holy Book attesting to each type of proof. First of all, the Quran commands free investigation and meditation upon the universal principles of the world of existence and the general principles of cosmic order, as well as upon more particular orders such as that of the heavens, the stars, day and night, the earth, the plants, animals, men, etc. It praises in the most eloquent language intellectual investigation of these matters.
Secondly, the Quran has commanded man to apply dialectical thought, which is usually called theological (kalami) discussion, provided it is accomplished in the best manner possible, that is, with the aim of manifesting the truth without contention and by men who possess the necessary moral virtues. It is said in the Quran, "Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason ["jadil," from jadal] with them in the better way". 
Shi'ite Initiative in Islamic Philosophy and Kalam
Those who are acquainted with sayings and works of the companions of the Prophet know that there is little in them containing an appreciable discussion of philosophical questions. It is only Ali whose compelling metaphysical utterances contain the deepest philosophical thought.
The companions and the scholars who followed them, and in fact the Arabs of that day in general, were not acquainted with free intellectual discussion. There is no example of philosophical thought in the works of the scholars of the first two centuries. Only the profound sayings of the Shi'ite Imams, particularly the first and eighth, contain an inexhaustible treasury of philosophical meditations in their Islamic context. It is they who acquainted some of their students with this form of thought.
It was during the early 3rd century that numerous philosophical writings were translated into Arabic from Greek, and through them the method of philosophical thought became known to the general public. However, philosophical work ceased to exist beyond the seventh century among Muslim majority in the Sunni world. Although after Ibn Rushd (Averros) philosophy disappeared in the Sunni world, it continued to live in Shi'ism. The effective factor beyond the continued existence of philosophical thought in Shi'ism is the scientific treasuries left from the Shi'ite noble predecessors. In order to clarify this situation it is enough to compare the treasury of knowledge left by the Household of the Prophet with the philosophical works written over the course of the centuries. In this comparison one can see clearly how each day Islamic philosophy approached this source of knowledge ever more closely, until in the 11th/17th century Islamic philosophy and this inspired treasury of wisdom converged more or less completely. They were separated only by certain differences of interpretation of some of the principles of philosophy.
C) Intuition and Unveiling
The Holy Quran in subtle terms explains that all true religious science originates and comes from Divine Unity (tawhid) and the knowledge of God and His Attributes. The perfection of the knowledge of God belongs to those whom He has drawn from all places and elevated solely to Himself. It is these men who have forgotten themselves and all things and as a result of sincerity in obedience to God have been able to concentrate all their powers and energies upon the transcendent world. Their eyes have become illuminated through the vision of the light of the Pure Creator. With the eye of discernment they have seen the reality of things in the kingdom of heaven and earth, for through sincerity of obedience they have reached the station of certainty (yaqin). As a result of this certainty the kingdoms of heaven and earth and the immortal life of the eternal world have become revealed to them.
Deliberation upon the following holy verses illuminates fully this claim:
"و اعبد ربک حتی یاتیک الیقین"
[And serve your Lord until there comes to you that which is certain.]
"کلا لو تعلمون علم الیقین لترون الجحیم"
[Nay! if you had known with a certain knowledge, you should most certainly have seen the hell.]
"فمن کان یرجوا لقاء ربه فلیعمل عملاً صالحاً و لایشرک بعبادة ربه احداً"
[Therefore, whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds, and not join any one in the service of his Lord.]
Firstly, the Commander of the Faithful, Ali bin Abi Talib is known particularly for his eloquent exposition of gnostic truths and the stages of the spiritual life. His words in this domain comprise an inexhaustible treasury of wisdom.
Secondly, observance of Shari'ah standards in one's spiritual journey and in his behaviors, and compliance with Shari'ah rules in Shis gnosticim has been the most important factor guaranteeing protection of Shiite gnosticism from intellectual and moral deviations.
3. Shi'ite Religious Thought
What we have explained so far forms the basis of Shi'ite thought which includes so wide a range of beliefs and codes of practice that even mentioning their titles and headings are too long to be incorporated by this writing. For this reason, we will suffice to mentioning some of the titles and headings pertaining to the theological domain and leave a detailed discussion concerning Shi'ite thought in the ideological and jurisprudential domains for some other times:
- Belief in the existence of God is a principle common to all divine religions. Arguments are presented in different ways on this principle.
- The first stage of divine unity is essential unity followed by unity of attributes and actions. That is, God is one and has no partner; He is abstract and free of any intellectual and external composition. God's essence is characterized by all the attributes of perfection and free of any deficiencies. His attributes are not an addition to His essence. He does not need anyone or anything in doing His tasks. No being can help Him in any manner.
- The world has no lord and contriver other than God. Other managers like the angels carry out their duties only with the will and permission of God.
- Unity in worship is the principle common to all the heavenly Shari'ah, and the purpose of prophetic mission of all the prophets was to remind about and stress on this principle.
- Belief in the intercession (shafa'ah) and invocation (tawassol) and that according to the Quranic doctrines, these two are not opposed to divine unity nor are they considered to be shirk (polytheistic).
- Belief in rational good and rational evil and that the intellect perceives that God is free from all evil acts and that He commits no unjust actions.
Belief in rational good and evil has many benefits one of which is the belief in justice. Justice itself consists of many branches and subdivisions such as the justice of God (belief in God being Just opens up many big gates of knowledge to us and solves many ideological issues), the necessity of a Mujtahid, political and social rulers and prayer leaders, witnesses etc. being just…
- Belief in "al-Amr bayn al-amrayn" i.e. a median approach towards the issue of determinism and freedom.
- The divine will requires that in order for mankind to tread the path of perfection and to be guided towards the lofty goals of creation, God should send prophets, and not suffice to intellectual guidance only.
- The divine prophets should be immune to intentional and unintentional errors in receiving the revelation from God, in guarding it and in making possible its reaching the people.
- The prophets are immune to all sins and errors.
- Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah, peace be upon him and his family, is the last of all divine prophets. He started his prophetic mission by challenging others with his eternal miracle (the Holy Quran).
- The religion of Islam is general and global, not regional and continental, or racial and tribal.
- The Prophet of Islam is the seal of prophets, his book is the last of all books and his religion is the final of all religions.
- The divine book of Muslims (the Quran) is free from all kinds of distortions and alterations. Nothing has been added to or omitted from it.
- The divine will extends to the fact that the Prophet (pbuh) introduces the Imam and leader after him and that he, by appointing Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) as his successor on different occasions, carried out this crucial duty.
- The duties of the Imam after the demise of the Prophet of Islam (a.s.) are as under: To explain the Quranic concepts and Shari'ah laws, to prevent the society from deviation, to answer religious and ideological questions, to carry out and establish justice and equity in the society, to safeguard the borders of Islam against the enemies.
- The Imam and successor of the Prophet (pbuh) must be scientifically and morally under a special divine attention and should be divinely trained and educated; that is, he like the Prophet (pbuh) must be infallible and immune to all kinds of errors and mistakes. For this reason, the Prophet's successor is discerned and appointed divinely and introduced through the Prophet (pbuh) or a previous Imam.
- The successors of the Prophet (pbuh) are twelve immaculate Imams or "twelve caliphs" as reported in Shi'ite and Sunni sources. The first of them is Ali bin Abi Talib and the last of them is Hazrat Hujjat bin Al-Hasan Al-Askari (Imam Mahdi) – may Allah hasten his reappearance.
- The names of the twelve holy Imams and successors of the Holy Prophet are the following:
1. Ali bin Abi Talib, 2. Hasan bin Ali, 3. Hussein bin Ali, 4. Ali bin Hussein, 5. Muhammad bin Ali, 6. Ja'far bin Muhammad, 7. Musa bin Ja'far, 8. Ali bin Musa, 9. Muhammad bin Ali, 10. Ali bin Muhammad, 11. Hasan bin Ali, 12. Imam Mahdi (peace and benediction of Allah be upon them).
- The twelfth Imam, Imam Mahdi, the promised son of Imam Hasan Askari was born in 255 A.H. in Samarra and he is alive as of today and waiting to reappear at God's order. During his occultation, a qualified jurist takes the position of leadership and serves as the leader of the Islamic government.
- Another feature of Shi'ism is the openness of the gate of Ijtihad. That is, according to the Shi'ite religion, the application of the general principles to minor issues and deduction of Shari'ah laws from the sources are not restricted to what the predecessors have understood; the gate of inferring Islamic laws from the sources is still open.
- According to traditions in Shi'ite and Sunni sources, the reappearance of a man from the family of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) at the end of time to establish justice and to help mankind reach real perfection is one of the indisputable Islamic beliefs. In fact, the reappearance of a savior is one of the beliefs of all the different faiths and religions of the world such as Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism etc. 
- Belief in raj'ah (return) and that some people return to the world after death and before the afterlife.
- Belief in life after death and that man receives the reward for his deeds in the Afterworld, and death is not the end of life; rather man is moved upon death from one world to another and that there is another abode between this world and the next which is called Intermediate World which has its particular life, bounties and punishment.
 - Al-Ahzab: 21
 - Nahl: 125
 - Al-Hijr: 99
 - At-Takathur: 5 & 6
 - Al-Kahf: 110
 - For further reading, see Shiite Islam by Allamah Tabatabai, pp.75-114.
 - For further studies, see Muhammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi, Amuzesh Aqaid, p.136 and 137.
 - For further studies, see Muhammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi, Amuzesh Aqaid, pp.162 – 167.
 - For further studies, refer to "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" index, question 58 (site: 294).
 - For further studies in this regard and for understanding the political thought of Shi'ism, refer to the articles written on "Wilayat Faqih" (governance of the jurist) on this website.
 - For further studies, see "Imam Mahdi According to Shi'ite", question 168 (site: 1375).
 - For further studies, read "The Concept of Return (raj'ah) and Its Details", question 247 (site: 1112).
 - For further studies, see Ja'far Subhani, Manshur-e Aqaid Imamiyah (An Exposition of the Shi'ite Beliefs).
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- The term “wali” has been used in several meanings some of the most important of which are the following:
A) Wali meaning guardian;
B) Wali meaning friend;
C) Wali meaning helper or assistant
Although each of three meanings can be used with regards to Imam Ali (a.s.), considering the narratives related in this regard, wali in the foregoing sentence in Adhan refers to the first meaning. That is to say, Ali is the guardian and in charge of the affairs and he is more entitled to be in authority on all matters of faith and law. Thus guardianship has been granted to him by God in the same way as prophethood was granted to the Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad – peace and blessings of Allah be upon and his pure family.
The question to deal here with is: Is “Ali waliullah” a part of Adhan? A brief answer is that as per the sayings of Ahlulbayt (a.s.) and edicts of Shia’s grand jurists, Adhan consists of eighteen sentences of which the sentence “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” is not a part and which should not be recited with the intention that it is a part of Adhan.
In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:
1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?
2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?
3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?
In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.
Meaning of “wali”:
A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.
B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”
C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”
Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using "Waliullah" for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word "wali" used in these meanings.
As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.
As for whether "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.
Thus, "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.
Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: "Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times." Then he says, "Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah."
The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" affect the prayers or not?
Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem. At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).
Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.
In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.
In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.
Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful, there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.
It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.
The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?
 - Al-Sajdah: 4
 - Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.
 - Fussilat: 34
 - Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.
 - Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.
 - Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame'ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.
 - Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.
 - Ibid.
 - Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.
 - For further reading in this regard refer to the following indexes on this website: “Proving the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.), No.1162” and “Quran and Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) No.1817”
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association) -- The discussion concerning such a topic is very extensive and this answer cannot incorporate all the details. We shall briefly mention, in two stages (e.g. beliefs and laws), those of the Shiite views which are opposed by Sunnis or a group of them:
A) Beliefs and Tenets of Shiite Religion:
1. Although Tawhid (oneness of God) is a principle common between the Shiite and Sunnit schools of thought, Shia believes that God’s attributes are the same as His Essence. (See in this regard: The Mu’tazilite Principles of Faith, question 8864 (site: 8811) ; Types and Degrees of Monotheism, question1913 (site: 3445) ).
2. According to Shia, God cannot be seen in this world nor can He be seen in the Hereafter. See (Shia and Sunni on Seeing God, question 8408 (site: 8477) ; God cannot be seen as explicitly denoted by verse 54 of Chapter al-Baqarah, question 6477 (site:8498) ; Seeing God, question 5621 (site: 7911))
3. Unlike the Sunnis, Shia holds that it is not permissible on God’s part to punish an obedient and give rewards to a sinner. (In this regard, see: Justice according to Shia and Mu’tazilah No. 5923 (site: 6122)).
4. Shia does not believe in determinism and compulsion. (In this regard, see: Man and Freedom, question 51 (site:287) ; God’s Foreknowledge and Man’s Free-will, question 2084 site: 2135) ; Man, Predestination and Free-will, question 1896 (site: 2718) ; Determinism and Free-will, question 2035 (site:2085) ; Rejection of Determinists’ Arguments, 528 (site: 576) ; The Concept of al-Amr bayn al-Amrayn, question 58 (site: 294) and also numbers: 1221 (site1217) and 130 (site:1237) and 1550 (site: 1570) and 2035 (site: 2085) ).
5. The most important Shiite belief is the belief in Imamate. Shia holds that Imamate is a part of the fundamentals of faith and the successor of the Prophet must be inerrant and infallible and it is precisely because of infallibility, which is known by none other than God, that the imam (leader) after the Prophet should be appointed by God and that the Islamic governments should lead to Wilayah.
6. Obeying an oppressive and unjust sovereign is not permissible according to Shia.
7. Shia believes that Ahlulbayt in verse 33 of Chapter al-Ahzab refers to Fatima (daughter of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)) and the pure Imams (a.s.).
8. Shia is of the view that the prophets are infallible. They do not commit any sin, whether capital or minor.
9. Bada, Raj’at (return) and intercession are also some of the Shiite beliefs. For further information, see: Bada, Tablet, Book, question 65 (site: 306) ; Raj’at (Return) and Its Features); question 5774 (site: 6014) and 3006 (site: 3578) ; The Return of Prophets, Imams, question 5884 (site: 8995)).
10. Shia does not consider all the companions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) as just. There were different types of people amongst the companions. Some were just and some were hypocrites. Their fatwa (verdict) are not authoritative and valid for anyone. For further reading vide: Justice of All the Companions, question 5920 (site: 6136)).
1. Taqiyah (dissimulation) is permissible according to Shia. For more details see: Tarawih Prayers and Taqiyah, question 7286 (site: 7804) ; Reasons behind Taqiyah of the Imams (a.s.) question No. 1779 (site: 2132) ; question 3022 (site: 4099) .
2. Mut’ah (Fixed-time marriage) is permissible according to Shiite viewpoint. For further explanation, see: A Study of the Ahadith (Traditions) on Mut’ah, question 3320 (site: 4098) ; Fixed-time Marriage and Peacefulness, No. 2925 (site: 3130) ; Fixed-time marriage in the Quran and Sira of the Infallibles No.6146 (site: 6348).
3. The gate of Ijtihad is open according to Shia.
4. Shia does not accept ta’sib and awl  in inheritance.
5. According to Shia, combining between two prayers is permissible. For further explanation, see: The Sira of the Prophet and the Imams in combining between Zuhr and Asr prayers, 9346 (site: 9329).
6. “Hayya ‘ala Khayril ‘Amal” (Hasten to the best acts) is a part of the Adhan.
7. It is permissible to visit the Infallible Imams’ graves (we believe that not only visiting graves is notshirk (idolatrous) but it is very much a monotheistic act and there is a lot of reward in it.). For further explanation, you can refer to the following answers on our website: “The Differences and Commonalties between Shia and Sunni Schools of Thought on Mahism, question 1425 (site: 1708) ; Particulars and Features of Shia, question 4942 (site: 9686); and also books written in this regard including: Al-Jawame’ wal-Fawareq bayn al-Sunnah wa al-Shia by Muhammad Jawad Mughniyah; Ma’a al-Shia al-Imamiyah fi Aqaedehim, by Ayatollah Ja’far Subhani, Islamic Beliefs in the Light of the School of Ahlalbayt by Ayatollah Ja’far Subhani.
 - The principle of 'awl (proportionate reduction) is applied by Sunni jurists when the estate of the deceased is 'oversubscribed' by Quranic heirs. Ta'sib is applied by Sunni jurisprudence to give priority to male agnates as heirs, and this results in many mathematical complexities in their system of inheritance. The only really significant difference between the Shi'ah and Sunni schools of jurisprudence in the laws of inheritance concerns the principles of "'awl" and "ta'sib". The Imamiyah jurisprudents have proved by means of ahadith from the Ahlu 'l-bayt (a.s.) that there is no 'awl or ta'sib in the matter of inheritance. This was also the opinion held by the great companions of the Holy Prophet. The well-known statement of Ibn 'Abbas in which he speaks against 'awl and ta'sib can be taken as authoritative. There are also other grounds of proof for negating these two principles.
SHAFAQNA (Shia International News Association)- When Arab Spring protests broke out in Saudi Arabia in 2011, the government reacted quickly, pumping $130 billion into the economy and cracking down on dissent. While this approach has worked in some cities, the Shiite Muslims in the Eastern Province continued to demonstrate. Reese Erlich, on assignment for GlobalPost and NPR, managed to get into the city of Qatif and meet with protest leaders.Night has fallen as the car rumbles down back roads to avoid the Saudi Army's special anti-riot units. To be stopped at any of the numerous checkpoints leading into Qatif would mean police detention for a Western journalist and far worse for the Saudi activists in the car. They would likely spend a lot of time in jail for spreading what Saudi authorities deem "propaganda" to the foreign media.
Demonstrations are illegal in Saudi Arabia, but here in Qatif, residents have defied the ban for many months. At least once a week the mostly young demonstrators march down a street renamed "Revolution Road," calling for the release of political prisoners and for democratic rights
The anti-riot units deploy armored vehicles at strategic locations downtown. The word on this night is that if demonstrators stay off the main road, the troops may not attack.Suddenly, young Shiite Muslim men wearing balaclavas appear, directing traffic away from Revolution Road. All the motorists obey the gesticulations of these self-appointed traffic cops.
Minutes later several hundred men march down the street, most with their faces covered to avoid police identification. Shiite women wearing black chadors, which also hide their faces, follow closely behind, chanting even louder than the men.One of their banners reads, "For 100 years we have lived in fear, injustice and intimidation."
Despite two years of repression by the Saudi royal family, Shiite protests against the government have continued here in the Eastern Province. Though Shiites are a small fraction of Saudi Arabia's 27 million people, they are the majority here. Most of the country's 14 oil fields are located in the Eastern Province, making it of strategic importance to the government.
Shiites have protested against discrimination and for political rights for decades. But the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011 gave new impetus to the movement. Saudi Arabia is home to two of Islam's most holy cities, and the government sees itself as a protector of the faith. But its political alliances with the U.S. and conservative, Sunni monarchies have angered many other Muslims, including the arc of Shiites stretching from Iran to Lebanon.
Saudi officials claim they are under attack from Shiite Iran and have cracked down hard on domestic dissent.
Saudi authorities are responsible for the death of 15 people since February 2011, according to Waleed Sulais of the Adala Center for Human Rights, the leading human rights group in the Eastern Province. He says another 60 people have been injured in that time and that 179 detainees remain in jail, including 19 children under the age of 18
The government finds new ways to stifle dissent, according to Sulais. Several months ago the government required all mobile phone users to register their SIM cards, which means text messaging about demonstrations is no longer anonymous.
Spreading The Word
Abu Zaki, who uses a pseudonym to prevent government retaliation, says demonstrators now rely on Facebook and Twitter, along with good old word of mouth. Practically everyone at the recent Qatif protest march carried iPhones. Some broadcast the demo in near real time by uploading to YouTube
Organizers hope their sheer numbers, along with government incompetence, will keep them from being discovered.
"The government cannot follow everybody's Twitter user name," says Abu Zaki. "The authorities have to be selective and, hopefully, they don't select my name."
When protests began, demonstrators called for reforms. But now, younger militants demand elimination of the monarchy and an end to the U.S. policy of supporting the king.
Abu Zaki and several other militant activists gather in an apartment in Awamiyah, a poor, Shiite village neighboring Qatif. In this part of the world a village is really a small town, usually abutting a larger city. Awamiyah is one such town, chock full of auto repair shops, one-room storefronts, and potholed streets. It is noticeably poorer than Sunni towns of comparable size.
Strong, black tea is served along with weak, greenish Saudi coffee. The protest movement in Qatif, they observe, resembles the tea more than the coffee
Abu Mohammad, another activist who uses a pseudonym, tells me protests have remained strong because residents are fighting for both political rights as Saudis, and against religious and social discrimination as Shiites.
Complaints Of Discrimination
Shiites face discrimination in jobs, housing and religious practices. Qatif has no Shiite cemetery, for example. Only six Shiites sit on the country's 150-member Shura Council, the appointed legislature that advises the king
"As Shia, we can't get jobs in the military," says Abu Mohammad. "And we face the same political repression as all Saudis. We live under an absolute monarchy that gives us no rights and steals the wealth of the country."
The government denies those claims of discrimination and repression. In the capital Riyadh, Maj. Gen. Mansour al Turki, spokesperson for the Ministry of Interior, is the point man who often meets with foreign journalists. Al Turki is smooth and affable and practiced at the art of being interviewed by Westerners
He dismisses Shiite charges of discrimination as simply untrue.
"These people making demonstrations are very few," he tells me. "They only represent themselves. The majority [of Shiites] are living at a very high level."
A Popular Cleric
Such assertions, however, don't account for the frequent and sizable Eastern Province demonstrations supporting Sheik Nemer al Nemer. The charismatic Shiite cleric has long been a thorn in the government's side. His willingness to speak out against discrimination and call for militant action endeared him to the younger generation of activists. For months he avoided arrest by shifting residences and only appearing in public during large rallies.
Then in July 2012 authorities made an arrest while he was briefly visiting his house in Qatif. He was shot and seriously wounded. Police claim it was an armed shootout in which they fired in self defense.
The sheik was unarmed, according to his brother, Mohammad al Nemer. He says his brother hasn't been publicly charged, but has been told that he faces a long jail term for instigating unrest against the king and organizing illegal demonstrations.
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Four police bullets shattered his brother's thigh bone, says al Nemer. "If he doesn't receive proper medical care, he will have a lame leg for the rest of his life."
Al Nemer's popularity has grown exponentially since his arrest, with graffiti demanding his release sprouting up throughout the area and marchers regularly chanting his name.
Shiite leader Sheik Mohammed Hassan al Habib offers understanding of the continuing protests. The cleric lives in a modest home on a side street outside Qatif. Al Habib adds something special to the usual proffering of tea and coffee: Swiss chocolate.
Al Habib tells me that the Eastern Province movement seeks democratic reforms while maintaining the power of the monarchy.
"We need to give real power to the parliament," he says. "The government should allow establishment of political parties, freedom of speech and assembly." But the king would still have final authority, he concedes.
"We don't want toppling or removal of the regime," he emphasizes
He acknowledges, however, that many younger protesters have given up on reform. For example, activist Abu Mohammad says, "People now want the overthrow of the ruling family as a reaction to the escalation of repression in Qatif. I think the best form of government for Saudi Arabia is constitutional monarchy like they have in Britain."
While calling for a U.K.-style constitutional monarchy is rather tame by Western standards, it's treasonous in Saudi Arabia.
"People must complain through the legal process," argues the Ministry of Interior's al Turki. The legal process does not include calling for an end to the monarchy.
But neither government spending nor harsh crackdown have so far deterred the protesters in Qatif.
The demonstrators see themselves waging a political battle in which popular support can overcome the government's repressive apparatus. The Shiites of the Eastern Province are the only Saudis regularly holding protest marches, but as Shiite cleric al Habib tells me, Sunnis in other parts of the country also call for reform.
"We work with reformers who don't care about your sect," he tells me. "They look only for reforms. We hope Sunni and Shia will get together one day to pursue this goal."
After a sip of black tea and a final piece of chocolate, we say goodbye to the cleric and head out to that night's demonstration. Somehow we manage to avoid the checkpoints. And for that night, at least, there was no violence.
Freelance journalist Reese Erlich's reports from Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are part of a GlobalPost Special Report on the role of the Sunni-Shiite rift in the Middle East, in partnership with NPR.
source : NPR